Vocational Courses in Fashion Designing

Fashion designing has a mammoth scope. Today, a large number of young people are opting for fashion designing courses right after their school or college. Fashion designing is an upcoming career and promises a great return. As a designer (clothes, jewelry or interior) you are expected to give originality and freshness to your designs. You are being paid decent amount for your designs and apparels. Some of the vocational courses offered by the institutes are as follows:

- Fashion Designing and Technology

- Garment and Manufacturing

- Industrial, textile and Apparel Design

- Textile Design

- Leather Design and Technology

- Fashion and Knitwear Technology

- Embroidery Fabric Painting

- Jewelry Design and Technology

- Apparel Production and Design.

- Interior Design

There are innumerable career options in fashion designing. You can work with designer houses, garment and textile industry, jewelry houses, boutique, leather manufacturing stores, films, TV etc. All the top-notch designers are being paid an excellent amount for designing apparel, jewelry, accessories or sets for the movie and serials..

In the recent years there India has witnessed an unlimited growth in fashion. Today, fashion has become global and has spread even in small cities and towns of India. India has seen maximum growth of fashion industry in the recent past and has now become one of the major hubs for many fashion companies. Fashion is no more restricted to elite classes and celebrities but today even the middle class society can afford to buy designer clothes, jewelry, accessories, footwear for special occasions such as wedding, parties, festivals etc. This has widened the horizon of fashion designers, now they not only concentrate on creme of the society but also cater with the taste and dislikes of the middle section of the society.

This is true that fashion designing offers a plethora of other courses which opens the door of various career choice and prospects. However, to succeed in this profession you are expected to be give new creations and designs every time and also need to keep pace with the constant changing tastes of customers and clients. There are many other challenges that you may have to come across, such as- extensive pressure from the industry, long working hours, constant marketing threats and aggressive competition from rivals.

To become a successful designer it is very imperative to choose the right institute. The some institutes in Delhi offer degree as well as diploma both but one must only seek admission in the reputed institute or college. There are many institutes who are only into the business of money making without any job assistance and proper training. Hence, one must be very alert before applying in any institute. It is advisable for every aspiring fashion student to spend a quality time on Internet which keeps all the record information of various institutes in Delhi and India.

Besides many private institutes for fashion designing, today you could find a good number of government institutes offering graduate degree and post graduate diploma in fashion designing. An admission test is conducted before you take admission in any government college.

Emerging Branches of Chemical Engineering Jobs

Chemical engineering serves as wells of growth and longevity of an organization. There are various industries which are supported by the principles and application of chemical engineering, making a professional with this qualification very well after.

A broad range of industries, like; pharma manufacturing, petrochemicals, energy, iron & steel among many others are the some of the highly progressive sectors, where one can deep seat their careers, as these industries play a dominant role in the growth of an economy, jobs in this sector are forward -looking and are always available in abundance. The career growth and annual compensation in these job domains is the highest among the lote.

The secondary job sections, where chemical engineering professionals can establish their careers are; electronics, biotechnology, food processing, environment, safety, and health.

Also with the government's efforts to harness alternative sources of energy to decrease the pressure on demand for fossil fuels, chemical engineering professional must seek employment in this sector, only if, they have prior experience from the energy sector. Multinational companies from major developed nations are eyeing at investing in this sector, which will boost job creation, as chemical engineering professionals are armed with the essential skills, they would be in the epicenter of rise in demand.

If you wish to accelerate your career path, then, taking up a job in the pharmaceutical industry will be a good idea. Being the fastest growing industry along with major developed nations, the personal growth of a professional working in this industry is aligned with the vertical growth of their employer.

An emerging domain for your career aspirations and the hunger to innovate can be fulfilled if you develop an expertise and skills in nanotechnology. Some of the developed nations have bright prospects to steer your professional growth in this domain. Also, if you wish to level up your educational qualifications, then a master's degree in nanotechnology is advisable, as this is an upcoming domain of science which will create worthy career prospects, in the near future.

To sum it up, there are a broad range of job domains that you can choose from, if you wish to utilize what you learned in your degree education. Other than that the skills, potential, abilities and competencies you possess has made you eligible to seek employment in any job sector that will allow you to make use of the exercises mentioned above, can be stipulated as the 'best suited' job sector for you .

Financial Reporting & Auditing in Singapore

The Accounting Profession of Singapore

The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Singapore (ICPAS) is the national body representing the accounting profession in Singapore. It maintains a register of qualified accountants comprising mainly local graduates. Membership is open to members of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and a number of other accounting bodies. Generally, prior to being admitted as a full member, they must attend a week-long pre-admission course. Members are designated as certified public accountants (CPA).

The Public Accountants Board, whose council members are appointed by the Ministry of Finance, licenses and registers accountants who wish to practise. It also handles practice monitoring, disciplinary matters and regulations on professional conduct.

Accounting Records in Singapore

All companies incorporated under the Companies Act are required to maintain books of accounts that sufficiently explain the transactions and financial position of the company.

The books may be kept either at the company’s registered office or at another place the directors think fit. If the books are maintained outside Singapore, sufficient records must be maintained in Singapore to facilitate the preparation and/or audit of financial statements that reflect accurately the company’s financial position.

Sources of Accounting Principles

Financial Periods Commencing before 1 January 2003 The principal source of accounting principles in Singapore, namely Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) and Interpretation of Statements of Accounting Standards (INT), are issued by ICPAS. These standards are essentially International Accounting Standards (IAS) modified for certain transitional provisions. They provide guidelines on the accounting measurements and disclosure requirements. Businesses may depart from such standards if the standards conflict with disclosure exemptions granted by law. Otherwise, ICPAS may take disciplinary action against any of its members who are in violation of the standards.

Rules on accounting measurements are generally established by SAS and INT. Disclosure requirements are governed by SAS, INT and the Companies Act.

ICPAS is a member of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Compliance with IASC standards are not mandatory, but the institute supports the IASC objectives of formulating and publishing standards for observance during presentation of audited financial statements and promoting worldwide acceptance of such standards.

Financial Periods Commencing on or after 1 January 2003 With the implementation of section 37 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, SAS issued by ICPAS will not be used with effect from annual financial periods commencing on or after 1 January 2003. Instead, Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (FRS), issued by the new accounting standards-setting body, the Council on Corporate Disclosure and Governance (CCDG), are now effective. FRS are essentially adopted from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The previous SAS were adopted from the same set of IFRS (formerly referred to as IAS) but with modification to certain transitional provisions. Consequently, there are differences between FRS and SAS.

Interpretations of Standards are authoritative guidance on the application of the relevant standards. CCDG adopted all international interpretations as Interpretations of FRS (INT FRS) with effect from financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003.

Compliance with FRS is a statutory requirement whereby any non-compliance amounts to a breach of the Companies Act by the directors.

Financial Reporting in Singapore

The Companies Act requires that an audited set of financial statements, made up to not more than six months before every Annual General Meeting, is to be presented to the shareholders at the meeting. Generally if a company incorporated in Singapore has one or more subsidiaries, it must prepare consolidated financial statements unless it meets certain criteria as provided for in FRS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. Currently, financial statements under the Companies Act consist of the balance sheet, income statement together with explanatory notes. With the Companies (Accounting Standards) Regulations 2002 coming into operation for financial periods on or after 1 January 2003, a complete set of financial statements will comprise the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity, cash flow statement and explanatory notes.

The financial statements must be accompanied by the directors’ and auditors’ reports and by a statement from the directors declaring that the financial statements show a true and fair view and that it is reasonable to believe that the company can reasonably pay its debts as they become due.

Companies which meet specific provisions in the Companies Act may be exempt from having their accounts audited but nevertheless must prepare financial statements that comply with the Companies Act.

Annual Requirements for Companies in Singapore

The Companies Act requires every company, except for those exempted in accordance with the provisions in the Act, to appoint one or more auditors qualified for appointment under the Accountants Act to report on the company’s financial statements. The auditors are to ascertain whether proper books of accounts have been kept and whether the financial statements agree with the company’s records. They will then report on the trueness and fairness of the financial statements to the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.

Audit Exemption Starting with the financial year beginning on or after 15 May 2003, the following companies are no longer required to have their accounts audited. However, they are still required to prepare accounts (and consolidated accounts where applicable) that comply with FRS.

o Small exempt private companies An exempt private company with revenue in a financial year below S$5m is exempted from appointing auditors and from audit requirements. Revenue is defined according to the statutory accounting standards, i.e. the FRS.

o Dormant companies A dormant company is exempted from appointing auditors and from the audit requirements if it has been dormant either (a) from the time of its formation or (b) since the end of the previous financial year. A company is considered dormant during a period in which no accounting transaction occurs, and the company ceases to be dormant on the occurrence of such a transaction. For this purpose, transactions arising from the following are disregarded:

  • Taking of shares in the company by a subscriber to the memorandum
  • Appointment of company secretary
  • Appointment of auditor
  • Maintenance of a registered office
  • Keeping of registers and books
  • Fees, fines or default penalties paid to the Registrar of Companies

Graphic Design: Degree Or No Degree?

Through my design career I have come across many job adverts for a graphic designer 'with a degree'. It always made me feel a little frustrated – "If I do not have a degree do you automatically assume I will not be good enough to join your company?". Surely a designer's portfolio and / or experience should say more than a piece of paper with a qualification on it.

I studied for a higher national diploma in graphic design at college and when the course finished I had the chance of pursuing a degree in graphic design or go for an advanced diploma in art and design. One of my lecturers told me that the degree contained more theory work where the advanced diploma was more practical. I opted for the practical work … after all that's what graphic design is.

The advanced diploma was only a year of study but most of the work was project based even if the deadlines were a bit too generous at times. However, since leaving college (armed with my qualifications) I admit that I learn more during my first design role and by teaching myself. That kind of education never stops with the design world and technology continuously changing.

This led me to question the importance of a degree as a designer and I know that I'm not the only one to ask this. In my honest opinion a degree does not automatically make someone more creative and successful than a designer who is self taught or who has learnt on the job. Their portfolio should be the strongest reflection of their skills and abilities especially when it comes to finding employment. Do companies advertising for a designer 'with a degree' honestly think that they are going to employ a better designer or is it a status thing?

Now I know that things have changed since I was at college so I thought I had a look at what degree courses my local college offers and found that they offer a BA in Art and Design. Here are the modules:

Year 1: Visual arts; applied crafts; digital arts; site specific design; graphic design; performance related design; web design; animation; self-employment; video production; community art; textile design; teacher or lecturer.

Year 2 : Creative skills and concepts; integrated project; visual literacy; digital applications; specialist options: skills development; contextual studies; personal development planning.

Year 3: Creative practice; contextual practice; specialist options: skills application practice; research skills; critical and contextual studies; pathways and concepts; professional and studio practice; professional and contextual studies; creative futures.

I did not study most of this stuff and I've spent 9 years in design studios working on a wide variety of projects of all sizes and with good feedback. I'm now working full-time as a freelancer trying to grow my own business. I like to think that I turned out okay without a degree.

So I guess my question is … does a degree make a better designer or is it all down to natural creative flair, experience and keeping up-to-date with the latest trends?